Minerals and Ores

Copper occurs naturally in the Earth’s crust in a variety of forms. It can be found in sulfide deposits (as chalcopyrite, bornite, chalcocite, covellite), in carbonate deposits (as azurite and malachite), in silicate deposits (as chrysocolla and dioptase) and as pure “native” copper. Below is a list of common minerals containing copper:

Native Copper Cu 100
Chalcopyrite CuFeS2 34.5
Chalcocite Cu2S 79.8
Covellite CuS 66.5
Digenite Cu9S5 78.1
Bornite 2Cu2S·CuS·FeS 63.3
Tetrahedrite Cu3SbS3 + x(Fe,Zn)6Sb2S9 32–45
Malachite CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 57.3
Azurite 2CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 55.1
Cuprite Cu2O 88.8
Dioptase CuO·SiO2·H2O 40.3
Chrysocolla CuO·SiO2·2H2O 37.9
Tennantite Cu12As4S13 85


Copper ores are vastly different, some are extremely narrow and steep, some are thick and flat, somer are rich and some have a very low copper content. The general tendency is that the richer ores are getting depleted and ores now generally contain less than 0.6% copper.

Chalcopyrite Mineral

The major copper minerals in the Nussir deposit are chalcopyrite and bornite. In addition,more copper-rich minerals as digenite, chalcocite, and malachite occur.

Chalcopyrite is the dominating copper mineral in the Ulveryggen deposit. In addition, there is a bornite-chalcocite type ore.


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